And my answer to contemporary man, forgetting what
pitiful he is in front of the magnitude of human possibilities
and right to measure the past and present.
The topics of the scientific journal were composed pretty naturally. In the process of
creating the first volume it was decided to shift the museum theme to the second volume.
In this way the meeting of the museum year becomes a good opportunity to remind
that museum is not a mere memory store and it is an illusion to create museum
of the future as a business project by training competence of museum workers.
The present of museums is reflected by the article of cultural theorist Odeta
Žukauskienė “Museum Culture: Changing Discourses and Institutional Critics”; it reveals
the dominating world tendencies with a special note to discourse mutation, innovations
of the basic institutional norms and management policies. The museology
discourse analyzing various aspects of museum practice, questions of curatorship, exhibition
organization and creation, communication, education and art reception lately
is experiencing substantial (so called “third wave”) transformations turning inevitably
important for Lithuania as well. Museum as memory storage place is increasingly
viewed from ideological point of view; history has become the environment of formed
functional narratives. Critically valued activity aspects of the central Lithuanian art
institutions are ventilated, anti-institutional initiatives of artists and perspectives of
institutional critics discussed. And, as one of the article reviewers has noticed, the
reference is made to the most up-to-date and still scarcely known in Lithuania theory
and practice. The article is innovative and actual to reviving museology studies in
Lithuania (it means formation of wider critical discourse). A new critical institutional
discourse urges to relate closer theory and practice and to seek a more active participation
in the processes liberating art field and public space from strict institutional
structuring and tendencies of commercialization.
Culture and art critic Kęstutis Šapoka expressed his vision in the article “Anti-museum
as Processual Memory”. It discusses peculiarities of change of museum notion. As one
of the turning-points in museum discourse or emancipation points the author indicates
the socio-cultural revolutions in the Middle or East Europe in 1989–1991 after the fall
of socialist and communist regimes. Yet democratization of the post-soviet (museum)
discourse partially coincided with Western tendencies and therefore the author made
an attempt to take into account a variety of local, socio-political, socio-historical factors and to stress that it is also characteristic of Lithuania where interaction between
contemporary art genesis and allegedly new museum discourse embodied in the National
Art Gallery institution is fairly problematic and controversial. As a hypothetic
counterbalance to this museum notion avant-garde case in Alytus is given.
Cultural sociologist Žilvinė Gaižutytė-Filipavičienė in her article “Art Museums and
Media” writes about innovations in the world of museums and reveals contemporary
interaction between art and media in the context of new museum paradigms. With the
penetration of digital media technologies and internet into museums new museology
and exhibition arrangement means as well as the notion of museum as media started
coming on stage. Why and how are museums invoking the new media technologies? In
eighties and nineties new important changes of Western museology paradigm related
to the change of the notion of museum functions have taken place. After the failure of
great historical narratives and rise of small histories under the influence of decolonial
processes the notion of museums as memory institution began to prevail. In discussion
on one of the latest and most debated area – relation of museums as outlined
physical scope, defined meanings and tangible artefacts to rapidly spreading new
media or virtual world certain issues are actualized: in what way digital media are
changing the traditional notion of museum (memory, history etc.,), are these transformations
quantitative or qualitative? Is museum possibly going to be relocated only
into virtual space with the choice of museology as media discourse?
Portuguese sociologist of art Rafaela Neiva Ganga in her thesis on educational practices
and strategies of European contemporary art galleries considers the way in which
city cultural identity icons – contemporary art galleries – underline city glocality. The
article analyses the social, political and economical situation of contemporary art galleries’
creation, explains how glocal projects are created with regard to common tendencies
of the world. As a research object it is chosen the transformation of art deco
villa into Fundação de Serralves Porte (in Portugal) and Vilnius Exhibition Palace,
which according to the author had to worship the soviet regime, its renovation and
turning into Contemporary Art Center.
Contemporary cultural researcher Skaidra Trilupaitytė has chosen Vilnius case to discuss
the space of public culture, consumption or cultured consumption. Emphasizing
that globalization has really proposed certain scenarios of urban consumption and
that centers of all post-industrial cities and public spaces are turned into a part of economical
services the author considers the problem of Vilnius as culturally consuming
and being consumed city. In the light of public city space and universal philosophical
thoughts emerging decline of commercial centers, consumption streets and “unculturedness
in the air” comes as a constant object of reflection.
The policy of intangible heritage consistently developed in Europe should be distinguished
wider. Creation and spread of national intangible heritage registers became the priority of the 21st century. Two publications seek to stimulate this theme in Lithuania.
The creator of one the first registers of intangible heritage, the representative of
Bulgaria at UNESCO, prof. Mila Santova presents her publication “Intangible Cultural
Heritage: Creation of National Registers and Cultural Policy. Bulgarian Perspective”
based on presentation made in international conference “Cultural Research in the
21st Century: Heritage, Identities and New Rhetoric” held in Vilnius on 28−30th of
German cultural anthropologist and media producer Thorolf Lipp in his article “Materializing
Immaterial. On the Paradox of Mediatization of Intangible Cultural Heritage”
gives a wide review of contemporary theoretical cultural suggestions field
and lays claim to the status of innovative humanitarian projects.
Horizons of the history of culture give a deeper insight into the importance of the
heritage revealing the mysterious side of Czesław Miłosz identity and witnessing his
peculiar value orientation. The publication presents also the original Lithuanian and
Polish folklore records provided by Czesław Miłosz to Berkeley (University of California)
where he was a professor.
“In Conversation on Values” prof. Aušra Jurgutienė interviews Guntis Šmidchens who
is the Head of the Baltic Studies Program and the Assistant Professor of Baltic Studies
in the Department of Scandinavian Studies in the University of Washington (Seattle).
When asked if really ”without songs there would not have been thousands of peaceful
resisters and the independence” he presents authentic witnesses and actual insights.
The chapter of reviews presents two books: Vilnius City Theatre: on the Way of Existential
Changes 1785–1915 (Vilniaus miesto teatras: egzistencinių pokyčių keliu
1785–1915), Vilnius: Lithuanian Culture Research Institute, 2011, by Vida Bakutytė
is reviewed thoroughly by Lithuanian Academy of Music and Theater prof. Aušra
Martišiūtė-Linartienė and After Master and Servant: Dialectics of Leadership and
Craftsmanship (Po pono ir tarno: lyderystės ir meistrystės dialektika), Kaunas: Kitos
knygos, 2012, by Gintautas Mažeikis is volatility analyzed by consultant expert Ph.D.
Arvydas Būta who also leads Leadership Programs in the ISM Executive School.
Finally the most interesting events of the firs half of the year are surveyed – Institute
of Lithuanian Language, Lithuanian Culture Research Institute, Lithuanian University
of Educational Sciences and Vytautas Magnus University collective project “Innovative
Training Program for Vernacular Lithuanian Teachers”, international “Login”
conference held in Vilnius at the end of May and “Crossroads for Cultural Studies” held
by Association for Cultural Studies (ACS) in Paris at the beginning of July.
We encourage a cultural polylogue, spread and diversity of opinions, we enlarge horizons
of opportunities while being aware that horizon is distancing as we try to approach